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ASCE Midwest Report Card, State by State

Mon October 13, 2003 - Midwest Edition
CEG



Illinois

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, schools, bridges

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 25 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 18 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 42 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 21 percent from 1991 to 2001. Illinois’ population grew by 9 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $1.8 billion a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $224 per motorist.

• 28 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 62 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 70 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is almost $6.15 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is approximately $11.2 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 167 high-hazard dams in Illinois, whose failure would likely cause loss of human life.

• There are 20 state-determined deficient dams.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $171.3 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• Developing needs such as storm water control under the NPDES program are proceeding slowly and lack attention from elected officials. — from Springfield

• Expansion and developments are proceeding at a greater speed than the infrastructure needed to support the growth. — from Oswego

• I live in a city with a population of about 25,000, in an area of massive growth. New infrastructure is needed for almost every city in the county.

In my city, the perceived lack of community involvement in the planning process has led to referenda that have prevented construction of a second bridge across the river that divides the town, and blocked the removal of a deteriorating dam. — from Batavia

• The economy has limited our community’s ability to obtain funding assistance from traditional federal and state sources.

Grants are increasingly difficult to receive due to reduced funding and tax revenue sharing is being redirected at the state level to ’balance’ their budget at the expense of local government.

Furthermore, Illinois has begun to impose an annual permit fee for municipal NPDES permits. Last year the permit was renewed at no cost. All these factors are squeezing the local community. — from Frankfort

Aviation

• The financing plan for O’Hare International Airport expansion relies heavily on Chicago going further into debt by selling bonds backed by existing passenger ticket taxes and general airport revenue.

The city also would tap into additional funds from ticket taxes after gaining federal approval for the financing plan. Airline contributions, in the form of debt-service payments, would begin around 2007, when the airline industry is expected to have rebounded.

If recovery takes longer, the city and state will be responsible for the costs. (Chicago Tribune, 8/8/03)

Wastewater

• Heavy thunderstorms this summer overloaded Chicago’s sewers with runoff water, which has led to elevated bacteria levels that forced the closure of 16 of Chicago’s 23 lakefront beaches. (Chicago Tribune, 8/11/03)

Dams

• In 1978, the Fox River broke through a 10-ft. section of the North Dam in the Batavia Park District. The breach has since been clogged with tree logs and debris. Plans to remove the dam and install a bream have stalled. (Chicago Tribune, 8/8/03)

Indiana

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads,wastewater, bridges

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 20 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 23 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 12 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 32 percent from 1991 to 2001. Indiana’s population grew by 10 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $813 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $197 per motorist.

• 35 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 56 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 67 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $1.7 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $5.3 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 243 high-hazard dams, whose failure would likely cause a loss of human life.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $199.2 million.

Field Notes From a Civil Engineer in the State

• Indianapolis is the largest United States city without a subway or light rail mass transit system. This metro area also is an extremely large sprawling city. These characteristics have turned the city into one of large highways, heavy traffic and worsening air pollution.

Local government agencies are just now realizing that even with massive road widening projects, that current rate of growth in central Indiana will necessitate a mass transit system.

Procuring the money for a project of this size will be very difficult. Many funds are being used to remove [combined sewer overflows] and separate sewers to comply with EPA mandated requirements.

There also are considerable budget problems in the state, which has been hit hard in this recession, with more jobs lost per capita than any state in the country.

Federal funding is needed to improve existing roads and start a light rail system to alleviate congestion. — from Indianapolis

Roads and Bridges

• Treacherous U.S. 36 traffic: State officials see three possible scenarios: building a bypass that would route traffic around the town; improving existing roads through town; or simply doing nothing.

Up to 30,000 vehicles a day cram into the two east-west lanes, including some large trucks. (Indianapolis Star, 7/15/03)

• The Midwest is losing the battle against traffic congestion … because local governments continue to focus on paving highways, not building public transit.

Indiana received $5.28 billion in federal transportation money from 1992 to 2001 and spent the bulk of it on highway projects. But traffic congestion has not gotten better. The study also found that since 1992 Midwestern states spent 83 percent of $42 billion in federal dollars on road and highway projects.

Indiana drivers spent an average of 42 hours stuck in traffic in 2000, compared with just eight hours in 1990. (Indianapolis Star, 6/26/03).

Mass Transit

• Ridership on the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District’s South Shore Railroad fell by nearly 5 percent in 2002.

Dennis Rittenmeyer, president of the Regional Transportation Authority, said Northwest Indiana likely won’t see major public transportation improvements until lawmakers in Indianapolis approve new taxes to pay for them.

In the legislature’s last session, transportation authority could not persuade lawmakers to approve a local food-and-beverage tax that would have raised $6 million for the region’s three bus systems and an expansion of the South Shore Railroad. (State News Service, 6/24/03).

Wastewater

• Greenwood’s burgeoning boundaries have forced officials to draft comprehensive plans requiring infrastructure to be in place before a nail is hammered into new homes and commercial buildings.

The community is in the middle of a $16-million project to build sewer line. The new pipes would provide service for up to 7,000 acres for future development and 30,000 new residents.

All the sewers add up to an anticipated boom in commercial and residential growth on the city’s eastside. (Indianapolis Star, 1/20/03).

Iowa

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, bridges, schools

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 31 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 28 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 14 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 30 percent from 1991 to 2001. Iowa’s population grew by 5 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $532 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $275 per motorist.

• 35 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 50 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 67 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $2.85 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $1.25 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 77 high-hazard dams, whose failure would likely cause loss of human life.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $76.8 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• As former Chief of Operations in the Rock Island District Corps of Engineers, I saw my O&M Budget shrink by 2 to 3 percent per year in spendable dollars, a constant dollar budget against a 2- to 3-percent inflation of costs, at least. — from Davenport

• Major bridge over Cedar River had to be closed for a time last winter after significant corrosion problems were discovered in the box girders. Emergency repairs were made before bridge could re-open to traffic. — from Cedar Rapids

• Significant local flooding and poor drainage facilities every time there is more than a small rain shower. — from Ogden

•The levee system through downtown Des Moines is being studied by the Corps of Engineers as a result of the Flood of ’93.

We hope a comprehensive levee system upgrade will be funded by Congress when the Corps report is final. Most other infrastructure needs are being addressed.

Slowest improvement is noticed for deteriorating infrastructure in older neighborhoods for curb and gutter/sidewalks/repaving/landscaping/vacant houses/parks/water service lines and storm water lines. — from Des Moines, IA.

Kansas

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, solid waste, mass transit/drinking water (tie)

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 31 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 25 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 16 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 21 percent from 1991 to 2001. Kansas’ population grew by 9 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $273 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $146 per motorist.

• 9 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 55 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 74 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $1.65 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $1.7 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 34 state-determined deficient dams.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $145.6 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• I feel it would be cost effective to set up countrywide sewer and water districts. Johnson County, KS, is a good example of consolidation and effective cost. — from Johnson County

• Many times planning and zoning plans don’t fit some of the cities. We need to reestablish stability to our community by good planning and zoning tools and laws. We need to let fellow civic folks know we mean business when it comes to planning and zoning issues. — from Basehor

Kentucky

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, bridges, drinking water

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 25 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 30 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 35 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 31 percent from 1991 to 2001. Population grew by 10 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $511 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $192 per motorist.

• 30 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 59 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 63 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $1.77 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $2.5 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 208 high-hazard dams, whose failure would likely cause loss of human life.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $153.9 million.

Michigan

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, bridges/wastewater (tie), schools

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 38 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 31 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 37 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 21 percent from 1991 to 2001. Population grew by 7 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $1.8 billion a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $259 per motorist.

• 42 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 52 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 61 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $6.79 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $5.1 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 82 high-hazard dams, whose failure would likely cause a loss of human life.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $31.1 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• With regard to roads and bridges, funding is an issue on a local and statewide basis. With city and state budgetary issues, city of Grand Rapids local road improvements, which are sorely needed (rated as one of 10 worst city road conditions in the country) are delayed.

In addition, interstate condition and capacity improvements are delayed and cannot even be properly planned for (such as highway corridor or interchange improvements) with the political nature and instability from year to year of funding.

With regard to wastewater, a bond issue was passed in Michigan last year to improve wastewater collection and treatment, and eliminate sewage overflows. However, actually getting the bonds issued is more difficult and is not being considered with local and state budgetary issues.

City of Grand Rapids schools have an urgent need to improve their physical facilities. However, recent bond issues have failed so facility improvements are simply not made. — from Grand Rapids

• Bridge has been out for two years on the road I live on. Bridge just rusted out. Pot holes are getting bigger, dirt roads get no chloride treatment. — from Clinton County

• Our ’vision’ of the future is contained in zoning ordinances that were written many years ago to create subdivisions, but resulted in more wasteful sprawl. — from Sand Lake

Roads and Bridges

• A proposed hike in the federal gas user fee would raise the amount of money that Michigan gets back for its own transportation budget.

Currently, the federal government sends back only 88 cents for every dollar Michigan pays in federal user fees at the pump. If the proposed user fee increase goes through, the state would get back 95 cents in federal highway aid for every federal dollar residents pay at the pump. (Detroit News, 6/29/03).

Schools

• Detroit Public Schools are coming up financially short for the next school year. The school district will reduce the budget approximately $100 million and close 16 schools. (Detroit News, 7/2/03).

Wastewater

• In St. Clair, deteriorating pipes and overburdened treatment plants are stifling economic expansion, flooding basements and polluting water. The price tag to fix decrepit, undersized sewers and treatment plants would reach $52 billion over the next 30 years.

In Detroit, it will cost $900 million to fix connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers; funding won’t be available for three years. (Detroit News, 7/21/03).

Minnesota

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, mass transit, bridges

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 33 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 16 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 71 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 36 percent from 1991 to 2001. Population grew by 14 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $430 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $148 per motorist.

• 16 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 57 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 66 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental feature.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $3.01 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $1.1 billion over the next 20 years.

• There are 40 high-hazard dams, whose failure would likely cause loss of human life.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $20.1 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• It is very difficult to convince people that it is cheaper to maintain infrastructure and repair it before it completely fails and you have a sewer or water pipe break. Just trying to overlay streets is like pulling teeth. — from Albert Lea

• [There is no] consensus around adequate long-term funding for an array of surface transportation choices, especially in the area of mass transit. — from St. Paul

• There are numerous projects scheduled for roadway capacity improvements for high-priority interregional corridors, but little funding to preserve existing pavements on lower priority roadways. — from Rochester

Missouri

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, bridges, mass transit

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 59 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 37 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 32 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 33 percent from 1991 to 2001. Population grew by 10 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $2.1 billion a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $535 per motorist.

• 54 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 58 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $2.18 billion over the next 20 years.

• $3.2 billion in wastewater infrastructure needs.

• There are 16 state-determined deficient dams.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $374.1 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• City Council approved a poorly thought out recycling program that has sparked grassroots resistance and been postponed twice. Kansas City is one of few large metropolitan areas without a public sponsored recycling program. — from Kansas City

• Kansas City has a terrible time getting contractors to backfill and repair after tearing up a street for repairs such as fixing damaged gas or water lines. We have 1-in. thick steel plates all over our roads to cover these holes.

The city just finished repaving a nearby street. Within two weeks of completion a water line broke and now we have a plate covering what will be a patch in an otherwise new street.

We really need to start at the bottom and fix all our infrastructure, not just what we see on a daily basis. — from Kansas City

• The city of Independence has a professionally-qualified infrastructure design and review department of public works engineering staffed with several professional engineers.

Federal grant funds (80 percent) for street improvements must go through city approval and state highway department (MoDOT) approval. MoDOT is administering federal grant funds. Each stage of submittal (preliminary, right of way and final plans) has been professionally reviewed by the city.

Each stage has taken at least three separate submittals to MoDOT before approval has been given. Most MoDOT comments have pertained to placing more information on the plan sheet and following MoDOT design procedures (the city also has design standards), very rarely commenting on engineering related issues.

This procedure has significantly increased engineering costs internally and severely delayed project construction start dates. City review by professional engineers is adequate for these (STP) street projects. — from Independence

• We need another bridge over the Mississippi River in St. Louis. I heard that today there are fewer lanes over the river here than in the early 1980s.

Negotiating the Poplar Street Bridge over the river is very difficult (i.e., approaches, exits, traffic, rush hour). MetroLink needs to be expanded significantly in St. Louis. — from St. Louis

Roads and Bridges

• The State Highways and Transportation Commission has approved $4.6 billion in projects. About 700 projects will be built over the next five years for things such as bridges, railroads, waterways, aviation and public transportation.

The department said $3.9 billion will be used for highway and bridge projects. Officials expect the new system to result in a four to six percent reduction in the total number of bridges and miles of roadway that are in poor condition. (AP, 7/2/03).

• State highway money is shrinking dramatically, but area motorists won’t notice it for about two years.

Starting next year, officials will have about $150 million a year to spend on projects in the St. Louis area, excluding Lincoln and Warren counties, as compared with $300 million in the fiscal year just ended. (St. Louis Today, 7/3/03).

Schools

• Public schools took the biggest hit, losing $197 million, 8.8 percent less than the legislature appropriated. The public schools budget lost $173.9 million in direct state aid, as well as $18.6 million in school transportation funding. (St. Louis Today, 7/3/03).

Wastewater

• The Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District will place a $500-million bond issue on the April 8 ballot in the city of St. Louis and most of St. Louis County, that, if passed would lead to a 19 percent rate increase July 1.

The money would go to fund $647.1 million in sewer improvements over the three years beginning July 1, including $183 million in improvements at MSD’s Lower Meramec Wastewater Treatment Plant. (St. Louis Business Journal, 7/8/03).

Hazardous Waste

• The U.S. Public Interest Research Group released a report indicating that work on 522 hazardous waste sites across the country, including 11 in Missouri could be affected by the money crunch.

The Granite City site is the only project in the Metro East area believed to be affected, but three of the Missouri sites are in the St. Louis area: Westlake Landfill in Bridgeton, where uranium ore residues were buried; a site in Valley Park contaminated with trichloroethylene; and three Lambert Airport sites covering 32 acres that are contaminated with radioactive wastes. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8/7/03).

Ohio

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, bridges, schools

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 46 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 25 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 42 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 15 percent from 1991 to 2001. Population grew by 5 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $1.2 billion a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $153 per motorist.

• 21 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 76 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 83 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $4.95 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $7.4 billion.

• There are 450 state-determined deficient dams.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $384.7 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in the State

• State funding level of local bridge replacement and road improvement projects needs to increase. The current backlog of bridge replacements extends to fiscal year 2010. — from Mansfield

• The state recently passed a gas tax increase. However, funding for water and sewer projects is still almost totally dependent on user fees. — from Cleveland

• The Ohio Department of Natural Resources maintains more than 2,500 lane mi. of roadway and 175 vehicular bridges. We are allotted $3.2 million each year from Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT), but that is not nearly enough to maintain that much infrastructure.

Our capital improvement monies are dedicated to other infrastructure such as dams, water, wastewater, etc. — from Columbus

• There is currently a large push to try to improve the transportation corridor through Cleveland, but there are no significant funding sources identified. — from Cleveland

Roads and Bridges

• Ohio is increasing its gas tax two cents a gallon from 22 to 24 cents a gallon with another two cents to be added each of the next two years to raise funds for state transportation initiatives. (The Plain Dealer, 7/3/03)

• Ohio license plate registrations will go up by $11 a year and the once every four year task of renewing a driver’s license will cost $12 more. The changes are expected to generate $677 million a year to fix roads and build new ones. (The Plain Dealer, 7/3/03)

• ODOT will spend more than $1 billion this year on resurfacing, reconstruction and new projects. Forty-two projects are scheduled for Central Ohio this year. (NBC 4 Columbus-TV, 3/12/03)

• The bridge on Meadow Run Road in Pike County is still open to traffic, though a county engineer recently limited the traffic’s weight. It won’t be nearly enough for those local governments to cover the estimated $220 million in repairs needed for their bridges.

Of Ohio’s 88 counties, Morrow is at the bottom with more than 40 percent of its 341 bridges considered deficient. Pike County is close behind. Knox, Pickaway, Perry and Licking counties also are in the bottom 20. (NBC 4 Columbus-TV 6/26/03).

North Dakota

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, bridges, schools

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 33 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 25 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased 22 percent between 1991 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $73 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $160 per motorist.

• 11 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 49 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 62 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $490 million over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $238 million.

• There are three state-determined deficient dams.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is $25.7 million.

South Dakota

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads/dams/energy (tie), bridges, mass transit

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 46 percent of major roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• Federal funding road and bridge system under TEA-21 was approximately $198 million in fiscal year 2002.

• 28 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $177 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $325 per motorist.

• State needs to invest $304 million over the next 20 years to upgrade existing sewage treatment facilities and Clean Water programs. The largest share of that investment ($191 million) is needed for non-point source pollution controls.

• 45 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 50 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition.

• The state must invest $439 million over the next 20 years to repair its aging drinking water facilities.

• State has 47 high-hazard potential dams whose failure would likely cause loss of human life.

• There are three state-determined deficient dams.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is $37.1 million.

Wisconsin

Top Three Infrastructure Concerns

• Roads, aviation, bridges/schools

Key Infrastructure Facts

• 26 percent of roads are in poor or mediocre condition.

• 19 percent of bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete.

• 25 percent of urban freeways are congested.

• Vehicle travel on highways increased by 26 percent from 1991 to 2001. Population grew by 10 percent between 1990 and 2001.

• Driving on roads in need of repair costs motorists $862 million a year in extra vehicle repairs and operating costs — $235 per motorist.

• 36 percent of municipal solid waste is recycled.

• 49 percent of schools have at least one inadequate building feature.

• 60 percent of schools have at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition.

• Drinking water infrastructure need is $3.1 billion over the next 20 years.

• Wastewater infrastructure need is $2.3 billion.

• State has 192 high-hazard state dams whose failure would likely cause loss of human life.

• Rehabilitation cost for the most critical dams is estimated at $82.5 million.

Field Notes From Civil Engineers in